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Enlightenment in France French Revolution

Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, the Encyclopedists and Nicolas de Condorcet



18th Century ENLIGHTENMENT PHILOSOPHERS (2 of three)


Baron Charles Montesquieu (1689-1755) had a hereditary fortune and time for you to write. And that he combined with Parisian greater society, where he would be a celebrated conversationalist. He satirized French society. He belittled France's monarchical absolutism and also the Chapel, problem government bodies but contributing to his recognition. He would be a Catholic who thought that individuals should think on their own.

Montesquieu traveled through a lot of Europe to look at people and political constitutions. He remained in England for 18 several weeks and recognized Britain's constitutional monarchy. He was in opposition to republicanism and resented democracy, that they saw as mob rule. He saw government as reaping helpful benefits in the understanding of society's elite, and that he saw common people as unfit to go over public matters. The public, he thought, were moved an excessive amount of by emotion and not enough by reason.

In France, history had been referred to as it absolutely was in Medieval occasions, with supernatural causes, and Montesquieu defied this tradition. He was hopeful that reading through history would divest visitors of the prejudices and lead to improvement in modern society. He authored an essay entitled "Factors on what causes the Greatness and Decline from the Romans, " which referred to Rome because the product of social, political and geographic conditions.

Montesquieu respected England's John Locke – the famous liberal and empiricist of the preceding generation. And that he was affected by Newton's physics and supported a god which had made the laws and regulations that governed the physical world. But humanity, he thought, were built with a freedom and God didn't direct human matters. A god who directed people as though these were puppets he thought will not have created human intelligence.

Montesquieu thought that where government was more liberal where people thought individually, society could be less dedicated to religious ritual and much more dedicated to morality.

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