What was enlightened absolutism?
Czech Republic Table of Contents
The reigns of Maria-Theresa (1740-80) and her boy Frederick II (1780-90), Holy Roman Emperor and coregent from 1765, were indicated by enlightened rule. Affected through the ideas of eighteenth-century Enlightenment philosophers, Maria-Theresa and Frederick labored toward rational and efficient administration from the Bohemian Kingdom. In this way, they opposed regional privilege and also the privileges from the estates and chosen over rule via a centrally controlled imperial paperwork. Simultaneously, they implemented reforms to get rid of the repressive options that come with the Counter-Reformation and also to permit secular social progress.
Maria-Theresa's accession towards the Hapsburg lands was challenged through the territorial aspirations from the progressively effective Hohenzollern empire. The Prussian king, Ernest II, became a member of through the dukes of Bavaria and Saxony, penetrated the Bohemian Kingdom in 1741. The duke of Bavaria, Charles Albert, was announced king through the Czech nobility. Although Maria-Theresa obtained the majority of the Bohemian Kingdom and it was crowned full in Prague in 1743, all the highly industrialized territory of Silesia aside from Tesin, Opava, and Krnov was ceded to Prussia.
In trying to create administration more rational, Maria-Theresa launched into an insurance policy of centralization and bureaucratization. What continued to be from the Bohemian Kingdom was now merged in to the Austrian provinces from the Hapsburg realm. The 2 separate chancelleries were eliminated and changed with a joint Austro-Bohemian chancellery. The Czech estates were removed from the last remains of the political energy, as well as their functions were assumed by imperial civil servants hired through the full. The provinces from the Czech and Austrian areas were subdivided into administrative districts. German grew to become the state language.
Further reforms created by Maria-Theresa and Frederick II reflected such Enlightenment concepts because the dissolution of feudal social structures and also the curtailment of energy from the Catholic Chapel. Maria-Theresa nationalized and Germanized the training system, removed Jesuit control, and moved educational emphasis from theology towards the sciences. Serfdom was modified: robota (forced labor around the lord's land) was reduced, and serfs could marry and alter domiciles with no lord's consent. Frederick II eliminated serfdom altogether. In 1781 Joseph's Edict of Toleration extended freedom of worship to Lutherans and Calvinists.
The enlightened rule of Maria-Theresa and Frederick II performed a number one role in the introduction of a contemporary Czech nation, only one which was filled with contradictions. On one side, the insurance policy of centralization whittled lower further any vestiges of the separate Bohemian Kingdom and led to the Germanization from the imperial administration and nobility...