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Enlightenment and social class

Hierarchy Ethics and Enlightenment Ethics

The Social Contract

Medicare Part A Roughly Matches Section IIA from the PHIL 320 Outline (Fall 2004)


1. The word "hierarchy ethics" isn't one you'll find in many books, however it does capture something essential concerning the dominant types of believing that emerged in the western world (Europe, West Asia, and North Africa) just before the Enlightenment period (1600's through 1700's). The word "hierarchy" describes a ladder of creatures in the least real towards the most real, in the inferior towards the superior. (Sometimes this concept is known to because the Great Chain to be.) Within the Enlightenment period in The European Union, shortly then developments in European-affected The United States, this view was progressively challenged.

2. Good examples of hierarchy ethics are located as soon as Socrates and Plato plus they achieve their pinnacle of rise in the Christian theological ethics of Thomas Aquinas within the thirteenth century A.D.

3. Within the grand hierarchy of reality, God or some similarly transcendent eternal being is usually towards the top and mere inert matter at the end. Among we discover levels that contains the necessities of existence (diet and growth), animate existence (sensitivity, appetite, pleasure and discomfort, simple memory), emotional existence, productive reason, practical reason, contemplative thinking. Between people, who can handle reason and thinking, and God, there might be superior intelligences sometimes known as angels.

transcendent being
angels, (lesser) gods
contemplative reason (in humans)
practical reason
productive reason (ideas relevant to creating things)
sensitivity, appetites
diet and growth
material elements
Hierarchical ethics, as you may guess, provides a means of reasoning that appears, a minimum of in broad outline, to become suitable for religious commitment.

There's a kind of hierarchical ethics which makes people the very best rung.

4. Creatures stand it a hierarchy: gemstones, plants, creatures, humans, angels, God.

5. The greater is of course or metaphysically much better than the low being.

6. There's a hierarchy within humanity itself: children, adult women, and adult males.

adult males
adult women
domestic creatures

7. There's a hierarchy between social classes: unskilled workers, skilled craftsmen, master craftsmen, social authorities, the king, the emperor. There's a parallel hierarchy inside the chapel, as with Catholicism: layperson, priest, bishop, archbishop, pope.

social authorities
master builder
subordinate craftsmen
unskilled employees

8. Understanding is greater than lack of knowledge, moral maturity greater than immaturity, reason greater than emotion and appetite, practical (moral) reason greater than productive (technical) reason.

9. The low levels serve the greater levels, the greater levels naturally command or give contour around the low levels.

10. The areas of the body serve the entire living body the various components from the species serve the species in general the various components of social unit serve the social unit in general.

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